Geological Engineering Reconnaissance of Damage caused by the October 15, 2006 Hawaii Earthquakes: Expanded Database

Station A: EQ Records at HVO Oct 20 2007

IJGCH_1_2_3_StationA-1: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Records of Kiholo Bay earthquake.

IJGCH_1_2_3_StationA-2: Detail of earthquake location and magnitude.

IJGCH_1_2_3_StationA-3: Detail of seismograph recording.

Station B: Stacked Pahoehoe at Volcanoes National Park (Aug 2007)

IJGCH_1_2_3_StationB-1: Volcanoes National Park Steep, stable road cut slope of pahoehoe lave flows.

IJGCH_1_2_3_StationB-2: Detail of pahoehoe lava flows.

Station 1: Onomea old Hwy 11 Rd cut

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station1-1: Onomea Scenic Drive - Rain forest conditions typical of wet Hamakua Coast.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station1-2: Detail of typical EQ failure of road cut in soil.

Station 2a: Pepeekeo Mill

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station2a-1:Pepeekeo Mill old sugar mill stack still standing after EQ; as was nearby Lighthouse.

Station 2: Akaka Falls

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station2-1: Akaka Falls - possible EQ-related scars at Falls.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station2-2: Detail of scars at falls.

Station 3: Kepehu Hwy 11 Rd cut

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station3-1: Kepehu Hwy 11 Rd cut - Typical Rock Fall sign common along highways.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station3-2: Failed slope due to EQ within older slide scar.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station3-3: Slide occurred within residual soil above very weathered rock.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station3-4: Detail of corestone within weathered basalt exposed below slide.

Station 4a: Laupahoehoe

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station4a-1: Laupahoehoe - scene of fatal 1946 tsunami; no apparent Oct 2006 EQ-related damage.

Station 4: Ookala old Hwy 11 Rd cut

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station4-1: Ookala (old Hwy 11) - road cut failure in soil.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station4-2: Soil slump apparently extended across road and destroyed rock wall?

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station4-3: Typical weathered rock failed slope; note corestones.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station4-4: Nearby road cut in relatively unweathered basalt which includes clinker zones.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station4-5: Detail of clinker zone within rock road cut.

Station 5: Kukaiau Rd cut

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station5-1: Kukaiau Rd cut - typical road cut failure in soil.

Station 6: Paauiilo Bridge Hwy 11

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station6-1: Paauilo Bridge, Hwy 11 asphalt paving of bridge deck cracked.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station6-2: Embankment approach to bridge also failed restricting access on major Island Highway.

Station 7: Kapulena Lava Tube Hwy 240

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station7-1: Kapulena Lava Tube, Hwy 240- Lava tube spans 10 m.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station7-2: No apparent recent (EQ-related) loss of rock at roof or walls.

Station 8: Waipio Valley Road cut

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station8-1: Waipio Valley Lookout view of ancient fault-scarp/major slide scarp at cliffs; debris apron not related to EQ.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station8-2: Waipio Valley Road cut few rock cut slides on this sole access road into valley.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station8-3: Detail of typical EQ-related failure of weathered blocky rock.

Station 9: Honokaa Road cut Hwy 19

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station9-1: Hwy 19 near Honokaa - clearing of road cut slides underway one week after EQ.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station9-2: Failure of weathered rock aggravated by tree roots penetrating rock.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station9-3: Detail of penetrated tree root.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station9-4: Wide jointing in relatively unweathered rock: no apparent EQ dislocation.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station9-5: Tree roots within fresher rock.

Station 10: Waimea Fields Hwy 19

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station10-1: Waimea Fields Hwy 19- Typical common fresh scarps in soil: EQ-related??

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station10-2: Detail of soil scarps.

Station 11: Saddle Road Rock Wall Hwy 200

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station11-1: Rock Wall on Saddle Road (Hwy 200) rock wall built on aa clinker.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station11-2: Detail of construction of stacked rock wall: clinker forms loose arrangement.

Station 12: Waimea Views

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station12-1: View of Kona Coast from Kohala Mountain Road.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station12-2: View of Waimea area, Mauna Kea volcano (left) and Mauna Loa (right) from Kohala Mountain Road.

Station 13: Kohala Mt Road cut Hwy 190

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station13-1: Kohala Mt Road cut High and very steep road cut in pyroclastic rock: no apparent EQ damage.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station13-2: Detail of rock in slope.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station13-3: Detail of pyroclastic rock (welded ash with other volcanic debris).

Station 14: Kohala Mt Road cut Hwy 190

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station14-1: Kohala Mt Road cut - Typical rock fall from road cut, in mixed aa clinker/massive aa.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station14-2: Detail of massive aa block within clinker and weathered, highly fractured basalt.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station14-3: Mixed aa clinker and massive blocks.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station14-3a: STEREO PAIR 3-D version of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station14-3.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station14-4: Detail of mixed aa clinker and massive blocks.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station14-4a: ANAGLYPH 3-D version of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station14-4.

Station 15: Bridge Failure Kohala Mt Road MP 9-38

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station15-1: Bridge Failure Kohala Mt Road at Mile Post 9-38 Narrow bridge undamaged but road was temporarily closed here due to EQ .

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station15-2: Cause of road closure: >100 m of failed roadside embankment.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station15-3: View of embankment failure scarp.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station15-4: View of embankment failure scarp.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station15-5: Failed asphalt pavement adjacent embankment failure.

Station 16: Kapaau Road Cut Hwy 270

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station16-1: Kapaau Road Cut - extensive failures of steep road cuts in soil/weathered rock.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station16-2: Typical failure with evidence of influence of tree roots within weathered rock joints.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station16-3: Example of tree roots at intruding weathered rock mass and exposed at failure surface.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station16-4: Detail of root penetration into weathered rock mass at failure surface.

Station 17: Kapaau Road cut Hwy 270

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station17-1: Kapaau Road cut typical failure of weathered rock and soil.

Station 18a: Undamaged Bridge Hwy 270

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station18a-1: Undamaged Bridge at Hwy 270.

Station 18: Makapala Road Cut Hwy 270

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station18-1: Makapala Road Cut View of failed road slope.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station18-2: Weathered rock overlying unfailed older baked zone soil.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station18-3: View of weathered rock above baked zone soil.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station18-4: Detail of top of baked zone (at hammer); rock above failed in EQ.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station18-5: Road cut failure aggravated by tree roots.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station18-6: Failed top of embankment (opposite failed road cut slope).

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station18-7: Detail of failure scarp at top of embankment.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station18-8: Intersection Hwy 270 and access road to Keokea Beach Park: Highway was blocked by road cut slides.

Station 19a: Keokea Beach Park Pavilion Red tag

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19a-1: KKeokea Beach Park Pavilion red tagged as unsafe.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19a-2: Detail of red tag.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19a-3: Base of column failed in EQ.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19a-4: Detail of column crack.

Station 19: Keokea beach Park Sea cliff failures

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19-1: Keokea Beach Park Several sea cliff failures occurred in this locale during EQ.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19-2: Detail of 19-1.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19-3: Example of recently failed sea cliffs.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19-4: Headland failed in EQ.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19-5: Detail of failed headland.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station19-6: Failed sea cliff.

Station 20: Failed Bridge MP 27-8 Hwy 270

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-1: Failed Bridge Hwy 270 (Mile Post P 27-8) general view with cracked asphalt.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-2: Asphalt pavement failed in compression (thrust) during earthquake.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-3: Asphalt pavement failed in extension.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-4: Detail of failed asphalt.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-5: Embankment at bridge approach failed.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-6: Concrete abutment wall showed wide pre-EQ crack, further damaged by EQ.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-7: Detail of wide crack in abutment wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-8: Detail of EQ spalling damage within pre-existent crack.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-9: STEREOPAIR 3-D of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-8.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-10: ANAGLYPH 3-D of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station20-8.

Station 21a: Undamaged King Kamehmeha Statue Kapaau

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station21a-1: Apparently undamaged King Kamehameha Statue, Kapaau.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station21a-2: Detail of King Kamehameha Statue.

Station 21: Kalahikiola Church nr Kapaau

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station21-1: Kalahikiola Church (1855) near Kapaau EQ damage: toppled wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station21-2: Detail of toppled wall composed of weakly mortared stacked rock.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station21-3: Damaged church side wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station21-4: Damaged church rear wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station21-5: Detail of weakly cemented stacked rock wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station21-6: Damaged church side wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station21-7: Relatively intact church steeple (wood?)

Station 22: Windmills beside road to Upolu Airport

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station22-1: Windmills beside road to Upolu Airport; apparently undamaged by EQ? most still working.

Station 23a: Lapahaki Heritage Park

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station23a-1: Lapahaki Heritage Park apparently minor damage to Park walls.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station23a-2: Damage to wall due to earthquake?

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station23a-3: Apparently no damage to traditional rock wall/palm leave thatch hut.

Station 23: Ala Kahaki Trail cliff failures - Honoipu Landing

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station23-1: Ala Kahaki Trail near Honoipu Landing - several cliff failures in area.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station23-2: Cliff failures.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station23-3: Tension cracks behind crest of cliff.

Station 24: Road Cut near Kohala Ranch Estates Hwy 270

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station24-1: Possible roadside embankment failure, near Kohala Ranch Estates.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station24-2: Detail of possible EQ-related embankment failure.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station24-3: Road cut failure near Kohala Ranch Estates.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station24-4: Detail of road cut failure.

Station 25: Road Cut near Kohala Estates Hwy 270

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station25-1: Road cut near Kohala Estates failure in mixed aa clinker/massive aa.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station25-2: Exposure of mixed clinker/massive aa.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station25-3: Clinker underlies massive basalt.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station25-4: Mixed clinker and massive basalt.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station25-5: STEREOPAIR 3-D of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station25-4.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station25-6: ANAGLYPH 3-D of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station25-4.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station25-7: Detail of aa clinker, which raveled from under massive basalt during EQ.

Station 26: Failed Bridge Honokoa Gulch Hwy 270

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station26-1: Failed Bridge above Honokoa Gulch cracking of pavement at cut/fill line.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station26-2: Damage of parapet wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station26-3: Detail of spalling damage.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station26-4:Concrete cracking at pier support.

Station 27: Kawaihae Boat Harbor liquefaction

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station27-1: Kawaihae Boat Harbor lateral spreading.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station27-2: Detail of lateral spreading.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station27-3: Scarp and cracking due to lateral spreading.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station27-4: Ground failure due to lateral spreading in car park.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station27-5: Detail of ground crack at car park.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station27-6: Ground fissuring and sand ejection due to liquefaction.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station27-7: Detail of ground fissure.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station27-8: Slope failure due to lateral spreading at jetties.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station27-9: Detail of ground failure at jetties.

Station 28: Mauna Kea Observatories

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station28-1: Keck Observatory Mauna Kea general view of access road and retaining wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station28-2: Crib retaining wall and damage to exterior of observatory.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station28-3: Spalling of stucco exterior.

Station 29: Puukohola Heiau

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-1: Puukohola Heiau and Mailekini Heiau general view.

Station 29-1: (South side)

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-1-1: Puukohola (South side) stacked block edifice inclined about 50 degrees.

Station 29-2: (East side)

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-1: Puukohola (East side) east side slope bulged and failed in places.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-2: Slope bulged (right side of photo).

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-3: Bulged slope (at pencil).

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-4: Detail of bulged slope.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-4a: STEREO PAIR 3-D of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-4.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-4b: ANAGLYPH 3-D of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-4.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-5: Detail of base of bulged slope.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-6: Slumped portion of east wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-2-7: Run-out of debris from slumped wall.

Station 29-3: (North side)

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-3-1: Puukohola (North side) parts of north side slumped.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-3-2: General view of slumped access stairs.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-3-3: Slumped access stairs.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-3-4: Pre-EQ view of access stairs (from

Station 29-4: (West Side)

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-4-1: Puukohola (West side) west and south side.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-4-2: Intact Southwest corner.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-4-3: Intact Southwest corner.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-4-4: Relatively small scale slump.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-4-5: Larger scale slump.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-4-6: Detail, of larger slump.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-4-6a: STEREOPAIR 3-D of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29-4-6.

Station 29b: Mailekini East Side

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29b-1: KMailekini Heiau northern portion of east side exterior.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29b-2: Southern portion of east side.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29b-3: Previously repaired east face of east wall.

Station 29b: Mailekini West Side

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29b-4: Southwest corner, Puukohola in background.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29b-5: Sextensive slumping failure of interior side of east wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29b-6: extensive slumping at south end of interior of east wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station29b-7: Pre-EQ view of Mailekini heiau (from

Station 30: Spencer Beach Park nr Kawaihae

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station30-1: Spencer Beach Park deformed rock wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station30a-1: STEREOPAIR 3-D of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station30-1.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station30b-1: ANAGLYPH 3-D of IJGCH_1_2_3_Station30-1.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station30-2: Detail of base of wall.

Station 31: Mauna Kea Hotel failed South end

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station31-1: Mauna Kea Hotel- structural failures at south end.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station31-2: Failure of exterior elements.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station31-3: Detail of failure.

Station 32: Road Cuts Hwy 11

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station32-1: Road Cuts on Hwy 11 - clinker failed below massive a blocks.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station32-2: Massive aa basalt.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station32-3: Clinker raveled and undermined massive blocks.

Station 33a: Hulihee Palace Kailua-Kona

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station33a-1: Hulihee Palace, Kailua-Kona tourist sign.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station33a-2: Damage to exterior of Hulihee Palace.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station33a-3: Detail of damage.

Station 33b: Mokuaikua Church Kailua-Kona

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station33b-1: Mokuaikaua Church, Kailua-Kona, opposite road to Hulihee Palace.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station33b-2:Recently repaired EQ cracks in exterior of church.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station33b-3: Finely crafted Hawaiian style rock boundary wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station33b-4: Undamaged rock wall fence.

Station 34: Kealakekua Failed rock wall Hwy 11

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station34-1: Failed rock wall ,Kealakekua raveled rock from top of rock wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station34-2: Detail of ravel.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station34-3: Slumping failure of stacked rock retaining wall.

Station 35: Captain Cook failed rock wall Hwy 11

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station35-1: Failed rock wall, Captain Cook slumped stacked rock retaining wall.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station35-2: Detail of a failed stacked rock wall.

Station 36: From Napoopoo- Kealekua Pali landslide

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station36-1: Kealekua Pali landslide (from Napoopoo) EQ-related failed slopes at fault/ ancient landslide head scarp.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station36-2: Detail of debris at toe of failed slopes.

Station 37: Scenic Lookout nr Puuhonua Nat Site

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station37-1: Apparently undamaged road cut in pahoehoe.

IJGCH_1_2_3_Station37-2: Modern rock wall substitutes mortar for intimate block contacts of traditional wall.

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